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Biotin Benefits for Hair, Skin and Nails

Biotin Benefits for Hair, Skin and Nails

By Gene Bruno, MS, MHS, RH(AHG)

What is biotin?

Let’s start with a biotin definition. Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin. What does biotin do? It is an essential co-factor to enzymes that play crucial roles in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, and glucose. It also functions as a key regulator of gene expression (i.e. the ability of genes to manufacture proteins needed for biological activity).

What is biotin good for?

As far as biotin benefits and uses, this vitamin has potential applications for hair, skin and nails. Following is more specific information on the benefits of biotin.

Biotin for hair

Among several symptoms of biotin deficiency is hair loss.1 Researchers investigated the serum biotin level in 541 female participants complaining of hair shedding (age range: 9-92 years old). Low biotin levels were found in 38% of these subjects.2 But, does biotin help hair growth and is biotin good for hair? In fact, research says yes. Case reports found that daily biotin supplementation could improve hair health after 3-4 months in children with uncomfortable hair syndrome.3 4 A review article evaluating biotin and its effect(s) on human hair found 18 reported cases of biotin on hair and nails. In 10 of these 18 cases, there was a genetic cause of biotin deficiency; the remaining eight patients experienced improvement in their hair after they had supplemented with biotin supplementation. The research found that all of these 18 patients had underlying causes of biotin deficiency, and once treated with biotin supplement, showed clinical improvement in a variable time period.5

Biotin for skin

Is biotin good for skin? There is actually limited research on the relationship between biotin and skin. There are, however, a couple of studies which point to a relationship. In the previously mentioned study with 541 female participants, 35% were found to have associated underlying seborrheic dermatitis – underscoring the importance of biotin for skin health.6 In another study on subjects with acne, a combination of nutraceuticals including biotin was found to be more effective than topical treatment alone.7

Biotin for nails

How about biotin for nail growth? Consider that frailty and brittleness of finger nails is frequently seen, particularly in women. In veterinary medicine, it has been documented that defective hooves of horses or claws of swine responded well to oral application of biotin. Accordingly, researchers studied the effect of biotin on human finger nails. 71 patients were treated with a daily oral dose of biotin (2.5 mg). Out of the 45 cases which finally could be evaluated, 41 (91%) showed definite improvement with firmer and harder finger nails after an average treatment of 5.5 months. Researchers concluded that, in most cases, biotin provides an effective therapy for human patients with brittle nails.8

Another study was conducted to test whether the favorable clinical results of biotin on nails could be corroborated by scanning electron microscopy. Researchers investigated the ends of the fingernails from 32 persons. They were placed into 3 groups: Group A consisted of 10 control subjects with normal nails, Group B was comprised of 8 patients with brittle nails studied before and after biotin treatment, and Group C was 14 patients with brittle nails in whom the administration of biotin did not coincide exactly with the initial and terminal clipping of the nails. The thickness of the nails in Group B increased significantly by 25%. In group C, the increase was 7%. Splitting of the nails were reduced in groups B and C and the irregular cellular arrangement of the dorsal surface of brittle nails became more regular in all nails of Group B and in 8 of 11 nails of Group C.9 Likewise a study10 from Switzerland demonstrated a 25% increase in nail plate thickness in patients with brittle nails who received biotin supplementation.

Biotin deficiency

An adequate intake of biotin for adults is 30 mcg/day in U.S populations. The average dietary intake of biotin in western countries is generally adequate, and biotin deficiency is rare. Nevertheless, biotin deficiency can occur. So, what are biotin deficiency causes? Biotin deficiency may be genetic or acquired. Acquired biotin deficiency can be due to increased raw egg consumption, where avidin (a compound found in eggs) attaches to biotin and inhibits its absorption into the intestinal gut. In cooked eggs, the avidin particles are destroyed.11 Other causes of acquired biotin deficiency includes states of malabsorption, alcoholism, pregnancy, prolonged use of antibiotics that interrupt normal flora, medications such as valproic acid, and isotretinoin intake.12 Additionally, evidence suggests that 50% of pregnant women are deficient in biotin.13

Foods high in biotin

Most biotin food sources are protein derived. Dietary protein must be broken down into free biotin, which is then stored in the small intestine and liver. Biotin is found in many foods. But, what foods are high in biotin? Egg yolk, liver, and yeast are rich sources of biotin. Other sources include whole-wheat bread, cheddar cheese, pork, salmon, avocado, raspberries and cauliflower.14

Biotin recommended daily intake

The biotin recommended daily intake is 30 mcg. However, biotin for hair growth dosage and biotin for nail growth dosage is considerably higher. For hair, the research suggests 3,000-5,000 mcg/day. For nails, the dose used in research was 2,500 mcg/day.

References:

  • [1] Zempleni J, Hassan YI, Wijeratne SSK. Biotin and biotinidase deficiency. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2008;3(6):715–724.
  • [2] Trueb RM. Serum biotin levels in women complaining of hair loss. Int J Trichol. 2016;8(2):73–7.
  • [3] Boccaletti V, Zendri E, Giordano G, Gnetti L, De Panfilis G. Familial uncombable hair syndrome: ultrastructural hair study and response to biotin. Pediatr Dermatol.
  • 2007;24(3):E14–6.
  • [4] Shelley WB, Shelley ED. Uncombable hair syndrome: observations on response to biotin and occurrence in siblings with ectodermal dysplasia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985;13(1):97–102.
  • [5] Durusoy C, Ozenli Y, Adiguzel A, et al. The role of psychological factors and serum zinc, folate and vitamin B12 levels in the aetiology of trichodynia: a case-control study. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009;34(7):789–92.
  • [6] Trueb RM. Serum biotin levels in women complaining of hair loss. Int J Trichol. 2016;8(2):73–7.
  • [7] Tolino E, Skroza N, Mambrin A, Bernardini N, Zuber S, Balduzzi V, Marchesiello A, Proietti I, Potenza C. Novel combination for the treatment of acne differentiated based on gender: a new step towards personalized treatment. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2018 Dec;153(6):866-871.
  • [8] Floersheim GL. [Treatment of brittle fingernails with biotin]. Z Hautkr. 1989;64(1):41-48.
  • [9] Colombo VE, Gerber F, Bronhofer M, Floersheim GL. Treatment of brittle fingernails and onychoschizia with biotin: scanning electron microscopy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990 Dec;23(6 Pt 1):1127-32.
  • [10] Hochman LG, Scher RK, Meyerson MS. Brittle nails: response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis. 1993;51(4):303-305.
  • [11] Durusoy C, Ozenli Y, Adiguzel A, et al. The role of psychological factors and serum zinc, folate and vitamin B12 levels in the aetiology of trichodynia: a case-control study. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009;34(7):789–92.
  • [12] Goldberg LJ, Lenzy Y. Nutrition and hair. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28(4):412–9.
  • [13] Zempleni J, Hassan YI, Wijeratne SS. Biotin and biotinidase deficiency. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2008;3(6):715–24.
  • [14] Staggs CG, Sealey WM, McCabe BJ, Teague AM, Mock DM. Determination of the biotin content of select foods using accurate and sensitive HPLC/avidin binding. J Food Compost Anal. 2004;17(6):767-776.